Monday, April 19, 2010

NASA Sets Payload Record as Part of Parachute Development Test

Under a brilliant early morning Arizona sky, NASA conducted a successful, record-breaking test of a drogue parachute being designed to return next-generation space vehicles safely to Earth.

The 77,000-pound payload used in the test was dropped from the back of a U.S. Air Force C-17 at an altitude of 25,000 feet, setting a record for the heaviest single load ever extracted out of a C-17 during flight. NASA conducted the drop test, April 14, at the U.S. Army's Yuma Proving Ground near Yuma, Ariz.

The design load limit test will provide engineers with a better understanding of the full structural capabilities of the drogue parachute, currently under development for the Ares launch vehicles. The 68-foot-diameter drogue and all test hardware functioned properly and landed safely.

NASA drogue parachute drop test at the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground. Image credit: U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground

"Testing of a deceleration system is a very complicated process," said Ron King, Ares I first stage deceleration subsystem manager for the Ares Projects at the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. "All elements must work together in a carefully timed sequence to ensure a successful test. Through continued development and fine-tuning of the recovery system, our team is establishing a solid foundation for safe, reliable payload recovery."

The test team is managed by the Marshall Center and included engineers with ATK Space Systems near Promontory, Utah, the prime contractor for the first stage booster and United Space Alliance -- ATK's subcontractor, responsible for design, development and testing of the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center, Fla.

The 68-foot-diameter drogue parachute and jumbo dart used for NASA's load limit test functioned properly and landed safely. Image credit: U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground

This was the second in a series of three planned load limit tests designed to place the loads expected in flight on the parachute canopy. The next test series, called overload tests, will subject the parachute canopy to loads greater than what would typically be experienced in flight, to prove the parachute is strong enough to survive some degree of unexpected events.

A load limit test, as the name implies, pushes the parachute’s canopy to its designed limit -- supporting a 450,000-pound opening dynamic load, or force in pounds exerted on the parachute generated by the drag and pull of the parachute when it opens. The primary test objective was to deploy or open the parachute at a dynamic pressure of 420 pounds per square foot, simulating the opening load conditions the drogue parachute will experience when it is deployed to slow the rapid descent of the rocket's spent first-stage motor.

The complete motor recovery system consists of the pilot parachute, drogue parachute and three main parachutes. Similar to those used for the space shuttle boosters, these parachutes have been redesigned to accommodate larger, more powerful motors that will travel faster and fall from a higher altitude than the shuttle boosters.

All systems were go as engineers conducted last-minute checks in preparations for NASA's drogue parachute test. Image credit: NASA

The drogue parachute is the workhorse of the parachute recovery system, providing the initial deceleration and taking the brunt of impact as it slows the rapid descent of the rocket's spent first-stage motor.

As the test series progresses, engineers perform three classifications of testing: development, design load and overload. Each level of testing is intended to test the performance of the new parachute design with payloads of different size and weight, under varying conditions.

The jumbo dart used as part of the Ares I parachute test is loaded into the back of a U.S. Air Force C-17. Image credit: NASA

The U.S. Army's Yuma Proving Ground provides the test range, support facilities and equipment to NASA for parachute testing. The U.S. Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base, Calif., provided the C-17 test aircraft and crew.

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tonyon said...

3d bioprinting = Immortality = go to stars

tonyon said...

...interstellar travel constant acceleration (Sun-Deneb: 1000g)... Earth...the 2 ships that will go formation flying for mutual assisting if there are problems...indestructible structures made of Hexapentas material, awaiting in airport the arrival of passengers... Day 1: zero-speed... THE SHIPS TAKEOFF►... navigation computer places on screen the spacecraft in the center of sphere...spherical\tridimensional\spatial Heading: Deneb... Antimatter rocket engines...ON... Here we go...goooooo!...1g...10g...100g...constant acceleration cruise: 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)... Inside of living areas (the same as going submerged in water: constant acceleration downwards...less...constant thrust, constant acceleration, from water upwards)...the gravitational transformers, perfectly synchronized with the acceleration, running: 1000g constant acceleration toward the floor ↓↓(motors)↓↓...less...999g constant acceleration toward the ceiling ↑↑(gravitational transformers)↑ = 1g constant acceleration toward the floor↓... 8.5 hours: light-speed = 1c...the fusion reactor as an artificial sun illuminating the immense Vital Support Gardens to lowering, from their comfortable apartments, cheerful passage to the pool...the electromagnetic shield anti-radiation...antigravity fields generator run forward, working: light objects away from the path of the ship...and trajectory ship away from the heavy objects...superluminal-speed > 1c... 42.5 hours: reaches hyperluminal-speed = 5c... Day 508: Half Journey...1000 light years...high hyperluminal-speed = 1435.39c... OFF engines...a few minutes of weightlessness during maneuver...the ship rotates 180º around its axis...motors ON again and... ◄STARTS TO BRAKE... Day 1017 (2.79 years): End Path party...2000 light The forever young passage of the 1st Immortal Generation (3D Bioprinting...Telomerase...modified Biological Timers...) disembarks at destination: an extra-stellar planet which came errant to orbit of Deneb giant.

tonyon said...

...interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration)... gravitation, dimensions and inertia: the Matter... The electromagnetic radiation: quanta (pieces) of energy in discrete amounts (minimum and independents), photons, which move in waves... Why energy quanta (photons) are attracted by gravitational fields of "stellar lenses" curving their trajectories and move on?...go ahead because they have inertia...and are attracted because the Energy also has Gravitation, but does not manifest because it no emits Graviton, or emits in imperceptible degree, because it has to be condensed enough like in matter for that, but it is sensitive to Gravitation from Matter emits... Energy and Gravitation "associated"...and...the Gravitational Force is another manifestation, unknown yet, from Energy...(no "curvature" of that called "space-time" relativistic)... When was finished contraction, F=G((m1*m2)/d²), the pre-early Universe; (no relativistic "singularity", but It was a Sphere with dimensions and outside the Infinite Empty Space); was need have as its starting point towards the expansion, one first action: when all Universe´s Matter was almost infinitely compressed and hot with all subatomic particles in direct contact without empty space among them, then →Gravity← becomes ←Antigravity→, those hyper-dense Matter becomes Energy ("infinites": Temperature + Energy + suddenly Antigravity = Big-Bang)...already again how a New Universe in expansion cooling, appears again the Matter from Energy...and again antigravity becomes normal Gravity... Its particle exchange, the theoretical Graviton yet...maybe "quanta of gravitational energy"... The Energy (e=mc²) is sensitive to Gravitation but hardly emits Graviton... The Matter, which is condensed Energy (m=e/c²), emits now Gravitons proportionally to its density... The Matter with normal density, naturally, emits few Gravitons (weak intensity of gravitational force). But...if someday could transform some of matter, not in Energy by annihilation with antimatter but entirely in Gravitational Force with an exponential Gravitons (or antigravitons) emission...would have a way to amplify the Gravitational Force a certain amount of mass... Light (photons) can be directed with a mirror... Gravity (gravitophotons) perhaps also can be directed someday the same such as light in a car´s headlight placed in ceiling looking downwards... This would be necessary for having artificial gravitational attraction only toward the ceiling in all the floors of the ship, each down´s floor must has less own gravity-power because receives gravitational attraction from all up´s floors. This can be difficult to observe in Universe because, although with unequal intensity, there are Gravitational Forces actuating from all directions. But in...gravitational transformers...for spacecrafts to thousands G of constant acceleration...

tonyon said...

(2)...interstellar travel (thousands G of constant acceleration)... The Electromagnetic and Gravitational Forces have some obvious similarities (fullfill the Law of Inverse of the Square) as both are "inversely proportional to the square of the distance that separates"...distance between the poles of two magnets the Electromagnetic...and distance between the centers of two masses the Gravitational... Just as now can manipulate the Electromagnetic Force transforming it into different voltages, currents and electrical powers...electrical transformers...perhaps someday when that mysterious Gravitational Force reveal its secrets, can also transform and amplify it (converting the mass exponentially in Gravitons) somehow in different intensities and gravitational powers...gravitational transformers... Spacecrafts with indestructible structures and the distribution of a building of housing flats (where are the foundations would the nozzles)... Antigravitational fields directed forward would go shoving and accelerating the space´s dust until reaching (the dust) almost ship-speed the dust´s cloud matter-feeder ("fuel") always placed at ship´s front, leading dust with Gravitational peripheral fields; already the dust with slow differential-speed between dust and ship (each dust´s particle already does not is a bullet); towards the ship converters matter/antimatter, where at half of matter would transform in antimatter to feed the insatiable demand for the voracious annihilation rocket engines ejecting the appreciable mass of the Pions, produced in large quantities, through the nozzles to the speed of light...a rocket´s thrust=linear momentum (mass*speed) ejection by nozzle in each second...and maintaining indefinitely to the ship at thousands G of constant acceleration... Powerful gravitational fields inside the living areas would counteract the HUGE CONSTANT ACCELERATION of the ship, keeping them to 1G...

tonyon said...

...interstellar travel constant acceleration (times to reach light-speed)... 1g (9.8 mts/sec²)=354 days ...↓... 0.5g (4.9 mts/sec²)=1.94 years ...↓... 0.25g (2.45 mts/sec²)=3.88 years ...↓... 0.1g (98 cms/sec²)=9.7 years ...↓... 0.01g (9.8 cms/sec²)=97 years ...↓... 0.001g (9.8 mms/sec²)=970 years ______ Huge constant acceleration the ship, living areas to 1g: inside the living areas..."the same as going submerged in water"... ↓↓↓↓g (motors)...less... ↑↑↑g (gravitational transformers)=↓g... ...↨... 2g (19.6 mts/sec²)=177 days ...↨... 10g (98 mts/sec²)=35.4 days ...↨... 100g (980 mts/sec²)=3.54 days ...↨... 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)=8.5 hours ...↨... 10000g (98 kms/sec²)=51 minutes ...↨... 50000g (490 kms/sec²)=10.2 minutes ...↨... 100000g (980 kms/sec²)=5.1 minutes ...↨... 1 million G (9800 kms/sec²)=30.6 seconds... ((typewrite: interstellar travel constant acceleration))

tonyon said... (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... geostationary orbit, a huge "bike-wheel" is gyrating around its own axis for have 1g-centrifugal. Wheel held in place with 4 CABLES (each cable with a track for Train, for both trains crossing ↓↑) FORMING THE STRUCTURE OF A RHOMBUS♦ (minor diagonal of rhombus is the gyration-axis of the Station-Wheel)...rhombus´s below, the carbon nanotubes Track towards Earth...rhombus´s above, the Cable towards a higher counterweight... if...WHEEL´s RADIUS = 250 mts... Wheel gyration´s Axis length = rhombus´s minor diagonal = ½ Wheel´s radius = 125 mts (axis could be a resistant hollow tube with for example 20 mts in diameter with an adequate wall´s thickness, hollow which could serving how tank of anything, e.g. air, or tank of frozen water storage no totally full, for volume expansion from liquid to ice without tank, Axis, breaking, thawing using solar heat)... Cable´s length of the rhombus´s side = Wheel diameter = 500 mts. Wheel´s ZONE-1g: habitable length = 1571 mts*50 mts wide (separation at both sides between Cable and Circumference of the gyratory Wheel, approx.= 5 mts, adjusting this separation installing an Axis with major or minor length, as much as shorter Axis...stronger and, for easy train´s passing, an angle nearer to 180º value in both rhombus´s-vertex, minor diagonal, where are the Big Soundless-♫-Bearings of Axis´s-insertion...a few Electrical Motors fed with Solar-Energy maintain automatically the gyration-speed counteracting the slow braking by friction from the Bearings...besides of Bearings: main Maglev system also for the gyration and Axis´s supporting, leaving the Bearings only how secondary security system...with a slight roominess between each Bearing and its exterior subjection, into the roominess all around...little solid Pistons radial extensible and retractable... Axis´s subjection: extensible ON, with Bearings; extensible OFF, with Maglev. With a sufficient cables tension coming from the counterweight, if Axis resists: the rhombus structure is undeformable)*10 Floors with 25 mts in height each one, gyrating 360º each 31 seconds, angular-speed = 11.61º/sec, linear-speed (tangential)= 182 kms/h... Station-Wheel´s GYRATION: AXIS IN PERPENDICULAR (90º) ORIENTATION TO THE ORBITAL TRAJECTORY...and so, while Station-Wheel follows its geostationary orbit, the Wheel does Not changes the spatial-orientation of its axis, and thus there are Not Precession forces actuating (and thus there is Not torsion´s force against Track)...

tonyon said...

(2) (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... Wheel with maneuver´s tangential-rockets for gyration´s start, or...gyration emergency stop...and maneuver´s axial-rockets for reorientation of Wheel´s axis, if it is necessary: because the Earth´s axis slightly and very slowly goes oscillating cyclically due to nutation and precession...that oscillation evidently produces transversal traction pulling of the Track towards aside from its anchoring on equator, thus would have an also slight pendular movement side to side and it would produce precession´s movements of the Wheel´s axis and thus a not wished torsion of the Track...but the system must supporting lateral charges, in the same orbital plane and thus without precession´s problems on the Wheel´s axis, of acceleration against W→Track←E produced by the Coriolis effect when movement´s direction is perpendicular to the gyration´s axis, that lateral charge is maximun on equator (there, a vertical movement is perpendicular tø Earth´s axis) and zero on poles (there, a vertical movement is parallel tø Earth´s axis); upwards charge to West, downwards charge to East; the gyroscopic rigidity contributes for maintaining the gyration-axis perpendicular to the orbital trajectory... When the Maglev Train slowly arrives (Train with one opened ╚╝ side in its technical maglev-zone train´s all along over Track for can passing for both tracks: main-Track/rhombus-track/again main-Track), using now cogwheels on Zipper-Track (zippers installed on the same Maglev-Track), Train stops in Geo 0g-Station placed over one Extreme of the Gyration-Axis, next to «Port for Spacecrafts»... Passengers disembark and entering into gyratory circular corridor, they take now the interior-elevator of one of the Wheel´s hollow-radius (also could be an exterior-elevator running for a simple zipper-radius), and tunnel "descending" till Hotel into the final Zone-1g...where while Station-Wheel goes turning, the immense O2 producer Hydroponics Garden receives a filtered Sun light...and there are Earth´s awesome views.

tonyon said...

(3) (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... on Train, besides, 2 gigantic and folded in little compartments resistant graphene´s parachute with a rigid central-ring for Track passing through: one parachute at Train´s front only for emergency when Train goes climbing, and so it could return "softly" to ground... And other parachute at Train´s rear with a sophisticated system also maglev of rigid central-ring for Track passing parachute´s through without hitching... System of rear parachute which normally before touch ground is automatically refolded, bringing again the canopy´s central-ring into its Train´s compartment and coiling the canopy and its fine cords around motorized gyratory cylinders.