Wednesday, December 19, 2007

Ozone Layer

"The ozone layer" refers to the ozone within stratosphere, where over 90% of the earth's ozone resides. Ozone is an irritating, corrosive, colorless gas with a smell something like burning electrical wiring. In fact, ozone is easily produced by any high-voltage electrical arc (spark plugs, Van de Graaff generators, Tesla coils, arc welders). Each molecule of ozone has three oxygen atoms and is produced when oxygen molecules (O2) are broken up by energetic electrons or high energy radiation.

Friday, December 14, 2007

Christmas Day

Christmas is a enjoyable religious holiday when Christians rejoice the birth of Jesus Christ. The Christmas chronicle comes from the Bible. An angel appeared to shepherd and told them that a Savior had been born to Mary and Joseph in a stable in Bethlehem. Three Judicious Men from the East (the Magi) followed a amazing star which led them to the baby Jesus to whom they paid homage and presented gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh.
To people all over the earth, Christmas is a flavor of giving and receiving presents. In some European countries, priest Christmas, or Saint Nicholas, comes into houses in the night and leaves gifts for the children. Saint Nicholas is represented as a kindheartedly man with a red cloak and long white beard. Another nature, the Norse God Odin, ride on a mysterious flying horse across the sky in the winter to prize people with gifts. These different myths passed across the ages to make the present day Santa Claus.
On December 24, Christmas Eve, Santa hitches his eight reindeer to a toboggan and loads it with presents. The reindeer drag him and his sleigh through the sky to deliver presents to children all around the earth, that is, if they had been good all year. Several American towns maintain the strength of Santa Claus.
Santa Claus exists only in our imagination. But he, Saint Nicholas, and father Christmas are feelings of giving. Christmas has been associated with gift giving since the Wise Men brought gifts to welcome the newborn Jesus Christ.In eagerness of Santa's visit, American children pay attention to their parents read "The Night previous to Christmas" before they go to bed on Christmas Eve

Thursday, December 06, 2007

Uses of Ginger

There are array of uses suggested for ginger. A tea brewed from the is a folk medicine for colds. Ginger ale and ginger beer have been suggested as "stomach settlers" for generation in countries where the beverages are made and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the US. Ginger has also been historically used to take care of inflammation which some scientific studies support, though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen. Research on rats suggests that ginger may be valuable for treating diabetes.

Wednesday, November 28, 2007

The Banyan Tree

In India the Banyan Tree is consider as National tree. This huge tree overlooks over its neighbors and has the widest reaching roots of all known trees, easily covering several acres. It sends off new shoots from its roots, so that one tree is really a interweave of branches, roots, and trunks. The banyan tree restart and lives for an incredible length of time--thus it is thought of as the everlasting tree.

Its size and leafy shelter are valued in India as a place of relax and mirror image, not to mention defense from the hot sun! It is still the focus and gathering place for local councils and meetings. India has a long history of worship this tree; it figures importantly in many of the oldest stories of the nation.

Tuesday, November 20, 2007

Adam Smith

He was born in 1723 in Kirkcaldy, Fife, Scotland, fatherless. The accurate date of his birth is unidentified. He was baptized June 5, 1723. At the age of fifteen, he begins his school at Glasgow and Oxford. In 1751, after he finished school, he was obtained a job at Glasgow University where he became the new Professor of judgment. There he lectured on beliefs, expression, jurisprudence and the political economy.

Just eight years after his training career began; he published his work. The Theory of ethical Sentiments. This show that he could write and he recognized himself in the world. In 1776, a query into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations was published. Immediately the book was a success. It had a remarkable effect on how people attention. Although it took him ten years to write, he became a very rich man from it.

Tuesday, November 13, 2007

Abraham Lincoln

The brave man of the familiar People. It had been an extended time coming. Terribly separated by the issue of slavery, thirty-one million American citizens were in 1860
Called upon to vote for 16th President of the United States. The Democratic Party meets at its National Party Convention in Charleston, South Carolina, in order to choose their candidate in favor of the presidency. Split over slavery, each section, Northern Democrats on the one hand and Southern Democrats on the other, presented its own conflicting proposal for the party platform.
In February 1860, Senator Jefferson Davis of Mississippi claimed that neither the Congress of the United States nor the territorial parliaments had the control to handle slavery.

Wednesday, October 24, 2007

A Team Player

The superiority of being a team player is one that everyone should enjoy. A team player is someone with good qualities who makes contributions and has the force to motivate each one around him or her. This individuality can be used in many areas such as games, family life, and in the company. You are more expected to be hired in the production if you have and demonstrate the qualities of a team player. As the business climate gets tougher before it gets improved, it is time to hike the talk if you want to develop.

Managers will require all the cooperation they can get. To land a high paying job with a major business you need to be a team player. Having good qualities is one of the most significant characters you can have. Being a team performer thinks of the team as a whole and is not selfish in their views and decisions.

Tuesday, October 16, 2007

A Snapshot of Macro-Economics

Economics is the learning of making choices. High school and college students all over required to take economic courses in order to achieve a diploma. Why is economics so important because it provides a guide for students for real-world situations Economics is divided into two types microeconomics and macroeconomics. Microeconomics is the study of economics at a slim level. For example absorbed on how a detailed business functions is microeconomics.
Studying the world economy is classified as Macroeconomics; its center on a much broader level. All students must understand the concept of insufficiency. Scarcity is a condition that occurs because society has unlimited wants and needs however the amount of property is limited. Unlimited wants and needs are what encourage us to create goods and services. We are never satisfied therefore we always have a want or need. On the other hand our income is limited.

Tuesday, October 09, 2007

A Civil Role Model
The word civil carries a lot of power. The usage needs to be carefully considered when it's entered into a sentence or an expression. Civil means a wide difference of things. It can be defined as a way to be attentive of the forms required for good reproduction. It can also be a means to the needs and affairs of the common public. However, the latter of the two definitions can also be extended to include a definition of the private rights and the remedy sought by action or costume. The point is that the word civil has a greater significance that has been embraced by our American legal traditions. It is the premise that law is there to provide the people and the lawyers are nothing more than mere guardians of law.
These are thoughts that were measured during the class viewing of A Civil Action. In the events of the case, there were many concerns that were brought up about our permissible culture.

Tuesday, September 25, 2007

A cold winter morning

I am lying on a white, sandy beach with the glowing sun beating down directly on my tanned summer body. I notice the beautiful, Puerto Rican Cabana boy heading over to replenish my newly empty Margarita glass. I look around my private beach and at the crystal clear, sparkling ocean water tempting me warmly in to its open arms. I get up from my bed on the sand, walking gradually to the water. The sand is flaming my bare feet with such passion that I speed my walk up almost into a jog. As I reach the waterfront I stop, as a falling wave is heading toward my glazing body; I step closer to be in its direct path. I move smoothly in with such grace; I prepare myself for the cool, refreshing bath. I hear an alarm bell screaming, I look around in a panic as it is hurting my ears and giving me a powerful headache. My beach is wandering away, and then it is gone. The ‘warmness my body feels is gone.
I open my eyes; I am gloomy, lifeless room. My alarm clock is going off and the sound can only be compared with exhausted your fingernails across a chalkboard.

Tuesday, September 18, 2007

A Business Plan

The following production plan has been formulated to obtain $200,000 in capital to launch a coffeehouse on the college grounds of Doane College named The Orange Cup. This arrangement will also serve as a formal sketch for the first five year's of operation. The financial forecasts show that this asset has significant pledge for the future.
The Orange Cup will provide for the Doane College Community a comfortable atmosphere while serve quality coffee at a reasonably priced with extraordinary service. An ample variety of coffee products including, gourmet coffees, latte, cappuccino, espresso, and iced coffee, will be offered at The Orange Cup. In addition, The Orange Cup will recommend juice, pop, and bottled water, hot cocoa, hot cider, and tea.

The marking plan for The Orange Cup is to attract students and staff to the coffeehouse to continue in a relaxed atmosphere, or for those customers with excited schedules, the expediency of our products.

Friday, September 14, 2007

A simple Girl
Around and around it soared in brutal circles, tearing from side to side her animated temples. At a standstill, they did not do anything. Still, they simply laid there with faces of chalk, invalid of all human emotions. She could not look at them in hopes of relieve, for long. The cherry rivers that flowed across her eyes, streamed down her steaming cheeks, made vision impossible.
Life was simply the stack of decayed flesh that enclosed her. From his immortal lips hung the bodies of all those who died struggle for him and all those who had tampered with self luxury. For that, she dammed him for all eternity; in every form he understood she dammed him. He had been her guiding angle and now it became evident to her. No prayer would pass her conditions lips, for this had been his movement she had fought and they had lost other than just a clash.

Tuesday, August 28, 2007

Java Coffee

Java coffee is a coffee bent on the island of Java. In the USA, the term "Java" independently is slang for coffee generally. The Indonesian phrase Kopi Jawa refers not only to the origin of the coffee, but is used to distinguish the black, very sweet coffee, strong with powdered grains in the drink, from other forms of the drink.The Dutch began farming of coffee trees on Java (part of the Dutch East Indies) in the 17th century and it has been export internationally since. The coffee farming systems found on Java have changed significantly over time.

A rust disease in the late 1880s killed off much of the plantation stocks in Sukabumi, before distribution to Central Java and parts of East Java. The Dutch respond by replacing the Arabica firstly with Liberica (a tough, but somewhat unpleasant coffee) and later with Robusta. Today Java's old royally era plantations provide just a portion of the coffee grown on the island. Logo of Java programming language is a coffee cup.

Tuesday, August 21, 2007


Cucumbers are usually harvested while still green. They can be eaten unrefined or cooked, or pickled. Although a smaller amount nutritious than most fruit, the fresh cucumber seeds are still a source of vitamin K, vitamin C, and potassium, also providing nutritional fiber, vitamin A, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, thiamin, folate, and manganese. Cucumbers are used in the attractive food art, graded manger.

Cucumbers can be pickled for taste and longer shelf life. As compare to eating cucumbers, pickling cucumbers tend to be shorter, thicker, less regularly-shaped, and have rough skin with tiny white- or black-dotted spines. They are not at all waxed. Color can be different from creamy yellow to pale or dark green. Pickling cucumbers are sometimes sold fresh as "Kirby" or "Liberty" cucumbers. The pickling practice removes or degrades a large amount of the nutrient content, particularly that of vitamin C. Pickled cucumbers are waterlogged in vinegar or brine or a combination, often along with a mixture of spices.

• English cucumbers can cultivate as long as 2 feet. They are nearly seedless and are sometimes marketed as "Burp less."
• Japanese cucumbers (kyūri) are mild, deep green, slenderand have a bumpy, ridged skin. They can be used for slicing, pickling, salads, etc., and are available year-round.
• Mediterranean cucumbers are smooth-skinned, small and mild. Like the English and Mediterranean cucumbers are nearly seedless.

Tuesday, August 14, 2007

Java (Javanese, Indonesian, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an land mass of Indonesia and the place of its capital city, Jakarta. Once the centre of controlling Hindu kingdoms and the heart of the colonial Dutch East Indies, Java now plays a governing role in the money-making and supporting life of Indonesia. With a population of 124 million, it is the most heavily populated island in the world; it is also one of the most thickly populated regions on Earth.
Java shaped mostly as the result of volcanic events, Java is the 13th leading island in the world and the fifth major island of Indonesia. A sequence of volcanic mountains forms an east-west spine along the island. It has three main languages, and most populace are bilingual, with Indonesian as their second language. While the popular of Javanese are Muslim (or at least supposedly Muslim), Java has a different mixture of religious beliefs and cultures.

Tuesday, August 07, 2007

Fashionable watches

At the end of the 20th century, Swiss watch makers were seeing their sales go down as analog clocks were considered unfashionable. They joined forces with designers from many countries to reinvent the Swiss watch. The result was that they could considerably decrease the pieces and production time of an analog watch. In fact it was so cheap that if a watch broke it would be cheaper to fling it away and buy a new one than to repair it. One of these Swiss watch manufacturers in progress a new brand, Swatch, and called graphic designers to revamp a new annual collection.

Tuesday, July 31, 2007

Light Arrester

In telegraphy and telephony a lightning arrester is to be found where wires enter a structure, preventing harm to electronic instruments within and ensuring the protection of individuals near them. Lightning arresters, also called rush protector, are devices which are linked between each electrical conductor in a power and transportation systems and the earth. These provide a short circuit to the earth that is interrupted by a non-conductor over which lightning jumps. Its function is to limit the rise in voltage when a connections or power line is struck by lightning.

The non-conducting substance may consist of a semi-conducting material like silicon carbide or zinc oxide, or a spark gap. Primitive varieties of such flash gaps are simply open to the air, but more modern varieties are filled with dry gas and provided with a little amount of radioactive material to support the gas to ionize when the voltage across the gap reaches a particular level. Other designs of lightning arresters use a glow-discharge tube associated between the protected conductor and ground, or any one of a many of voltage-activated solid-state switches called varistors or MOV's.

Lightning arresters built for substation use are consisting of a porcelain tube several feet in length and several inches in diameter, impressive devices, fill with disks of zinc oxide. A safety port is full on the side of the device to vent the occasional internal explosion without shocking the porcelain cylinder.

Tuesday, July 24, 2007


Hardware is the general name that is used to express physical body of a technology.It can be apparatus such as keys, hinge, locks, latches, wire, handles, corners, shackles, plumbing supplies, tools, cutlery, utensils, and machine parts, mainly when they are made of metal. In the United States, hardware has been customarily sold in hardware stores.Although often used interchangeably to mean "hand tools," hardware in olden times referred to the metal bits that were used to make wooden products stronger, more useful, and easier to build/assemble than if they did not have the benefit of metal fittings.

In a looser logic, hardware can be a major military equipment, or electronic equipment, or computer equipment. On the other hand, people don't talk about computer stores as "hardware supplies".In vernacular context, the term refers to trophies and other physical representations of award. The term "hardware" is used to specifically mean material or tangible parts of the computer when used in the context of computer systems and when compared to non-physical software running on the computer. Example: the CPU

Tuesday, July 17, 2007

Cultural differences of Love

Cultural differences make any worldwide definition of love hard to establish. Expressions of love may incorporate the love for a soul or mind, the love of laws and organizations, love for a body, love for natural world, love of food, love of money, love for learning, love of power, love of fame, love for the respect of others, etc. Different people place varying degrees of importance on the types of love they be given. Love is basically an abstract concept, easier to know-how than to make clear. Because of the difficult and non figurative nature of love, discourse on love is commonly reduced to a thought-terminating cliché, and there are a number of general proverbs concerning love, from Virgil's "Love conquers all" to The Beatles' "All you need is love".

Sunday, July 08, 2007


In a computer CPU, an accumulator is a register in which intermediary arithmetic and logic results are stored. Without a register like an accumulator, it would be necessary to write the result of each calculation (addition, multiplication, shift, etc.) to main memory, possibly only to be read right back again for use in the next operation. Access to main memory is slower than access to a register like the accumulator because the technology used for the huge main memory is slower (but cheaper) than that used for a register.

The canonical example for accumulator use is adding a list of numbers. The accumulator is initially set to zero, then each number in spin is added to the value in the accumulator. Only when all numbers have been added is the result seized in the accumulator written to main memory or to another, non-accumulator, CPU register.

Tuesday, July 03, 2007

Abstract art

Abstract art is now usually understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way.In the very early 20th century, the term was more often used to describe art, such as Cubist and Futurist art, that depicts real forms in a simplified or rather reduced way—keeping only an allusion of the original natural subject. Such paintings were often claimed to capture amazing of the depicted objects' immutable intrinsic qualities rather than its external appearance. The more precise terms, "non-figurative art," "non-objective art," and "non-representational art" avoid any possible ambiguity.

Saturday, June 30, 2007

Solar System

Solar System consists of the Sun and the other space objects gravitationally bound to it: the eight planets, their 162 known moonsthree currently recognized dwarf planets (including Pluto) and their four known moons, and billions of small bodies. This last group includes asteroids, Kuiper belt objects, comets, meteoroids and interplanetary dust.

In wide terms, the charted regions of the Solar System consist of the Sun, four terrestrial inner planets, an asteroid belt composed of small rocky bodies, four gas giant outer planets, and a second belt, called the Kuiper belt, collected of icy objects. Beyond the Kuiper belt lies the scattered disc, the heliopause, and eventually the hypothetical Oort cloud.

In sort of their distances from the Sun, the planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Six of the eight planets are in turn orbited by natural satellites, usually termed "moons" after Earth's Moon, and each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other particles. All the planets apart from Earth are named after gods and goddesses from Greco-Roman mythology. The three dwarf planets are Pluto, the largest known Kuiper belt object; Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt; and Eris, which lies in the scattered disc.

Tuesday, June 26, 2007

Blue rose

Since roses lack a gene to create delphinidin, the primary plant pigment that produces true blue flowers, blue roses were usually created by dyeing white roses. So-called "blue roses" have been breed by conventional hybridization methods, but the results, such as "Blue Moon" are more precisely described as lilac in color. However, after 13 years of joint research by an Australian company Florigene, and Japanese company Suntory, a blue rose was formed in 2004 by genetic engineering. The delphinidin gene was cloned from the petunia and inserted into a mauve-blend rose, the Old Garden Rose 'Cardinal de Richelieu.' (a Rosa gallica) However, since the pigment cyanidin was still present, the rose was more dark burgundy than true blue. Further work on the rose using RNAi technology to depress the production of cyanidin produced a very dark mauve plant, with only trace amounts of cyanidin.

Blue roses conventionally signify mystery or attaining the impossible. They are supposed to be able to grant the owner youth or grant wishes. This symbolism derives from the rose's meaning in the language of plants common in Victorian times.

Friday, June 22, 2007


Cotton is a soft fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant , a shrub native to tropical and subtropical regions around the world, with the Americas, India, and Africa. However, virtually all of the commercial cotton grown today worldwide is grown from varieties of the native American species Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. The fibre is most often spun into thread and used to make a soft, breathable textile, which is the most widely used natural-fibre cloth in clothing today. The English name derives from the Arabic word al qutun, meaning "cotton fiber".
Cotton fibre, once it has been processed to remove seeds and traces of wax, protein, etc., consists of nearly pure cellulose, a natural polymer. Cotton manufacture is very efficient, in the sense that ten percent or less of the weight is lost in following processing to convert the raw cotton bolls into pure fibre. The cellulose is arranged in a way that gives cotton fibres a high degree of strength, durability, and absorbency. Each fibre is made up of twenty to thirty layers of cellulose coiled in a neat series of natural springs. When the cotton boll is opened, the fibres dry into flat, twisted, ribbon-like shapes and become kinked together and interlocked. This interlocked form is ideal for spinning into a fine yarn.

Monday, June 18, 2007

Abstract art

Abstract art is now usually understood to mean art that does not depict objects in the natural world, but instead uses colour and form in a non-representational way.In the very early 20th century, the term was more often used to describe art, such as Cubist and Futurist art, that depicts real forms in a simplified or rather reduced way—keeping only an allusion of the original natural subject. Such paintings were often claimed to capture amazing of the depicted objects' immutable intrinsic qualities rather than its external appearance. The more precise terms, "non-figurative art," "non-objective art," and "non-representational art" avoid any possible ambiguity.

Friday, June 15, 2007

Oily fish

Oily fish are those fish which have oils throughout the fillet and in the belly cavity around the gut, rather than only in the liver like white fish. Oily fish fillets may contain up to 30 percent oil, although this figure varies both within and between species. Oily fish generally swim in mid-waters or near the surface
Oily fish are a good source of Vitamins A and D as well as being rich in Omega 3 fatty acids. For this reason the consumption of oily fish has been identified as more beneficial to humans than white fish. Amongst other benefits, studies suggest that the Omega 3 fatty acids in oily fish may help sufferers of depression, reduce the likelihood of heart disease and improve inflammatory conditions such as arthritis.

Sunday, June 10, 2007


Pollarding is a woodland management method of hopeful lateral branches by cutting off a tree stem or minor branches two metres or so above ground level. The tree is given a year to regrow, after the first cutting, but once begun, pollarding requires annual maintenance by pruning. This will ultimately result in somewhat expanded (or swollen) nodes topping the tree trunk with multiple new side and top shoots growing from it.
A tree that has been pollarded is known as a pollard. A tree which has not been pollarded is called a maiden or maiden tree; which also refers to the fact that pollarding is usually first undertaken when the tree is quite young. Pollarding older trees typically result in the death of the tree. Pollarding is sometimes abused in attempts to curb the growth of older or taller trees. However, when performed properly it is useful in the practice of arboriculture for tree management.

Wednesday, June 06, 2007


Malai is a South Asian term for clotted cream or Devonshire cream. It is made by heating non-homogenized whole milk to about 80ºC (180ºF) for about one hour and then allowing to cool. A thick yellowish layer of fat and coagulated proteins forms on the surface, which is skimmed off. The process is typically repeated to remove most of the fat. Malai has about 55% butterfat. Buffalo milk is thought to produce better malai because of its high fat content.Malai is used in such recipes as Malai Kofta dumplings and the sweet Malai Kulfi.

Thursday, May 31, 2007


The mango is a tropical fruit of the mango tree. Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera which consists of about 30 species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The exact origins of the mango are unknown, but most believe that it is native to Southern and Southeast Asia including the Philippines, Indonesia, India, Burma, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and Bangladesh owing to the wide range of genetic diversity in the region and fossil records dating back 25 to 30 million years.
Mangos retain a special significance in the culture of South Asia where they have been cultured for millennia. It has been the national symbol of the Philippines. Reference to mangoes as the "food of the gods" can be found in the Hindu Vedas and the leaves are ritually used for floral decorations at Hindu marriages and religious ceremonies.

Sunday, May 27, 2007


Hyphy is a style of music and dance primarily associated with the Bay Area hip hop culture. Although the hyphy movement started in the early '90s, it began to emerge in the early 2000s as a response from Bay Area rappers next to commercial hip hop for not acknowledging the Bay for setting trends in the hip hop industry.Although the "hyphy movement" has just newly seen light in mainstream America, it has been a long standing and evolving culture in the Bay Area. Bay Area rapper Keak Da Sneak takes credit for coining the term when, as a young boy, his mother would often tell him he was hyperactive. He would repeat the word "hyper" as "hyphy".

Hyphy music is illustrious by gritty, pounding rhythms and in this sense can be associated with the Bay Area as crunk music is to the South; however, contrary to popular belief, the musical aspect of the Hyphy movement has very few similarities to crunk music as it is dictated by more up-tempo beats. An individual is said to "get hyphy" when they act or dance in an overstated and ridiculous manner. Those who consider themselves part of the Hyphy movement would describe this behavior as acting "stupid" or "going dumb." In contrast to much of popular American culture where these phrases would be considered negative or even insulting, Hyphy is illustrious by taking this kind of behavior as a form of pride

Monday, May 21, 2007


Chocolate comprises a number of raw and processed foods that create from the seed of the tropical cacao tree. It is a common ingredient in many kinds of confections such as chocolate bars, candy, ice cream, cookies, cakes, pies, chocolate mousse, and other desserts. It is one of the most popular flavours in the world.
Chocolate was shaped by the Mesoamerican civilization, from cacao beans, and cultivated by pre-Columbian civilizations such as the Maya and Aztec, who used it as a basic part in a variety of sauces and beverages. The cocoa beans were ground and mixed with water to create a variety of beverages, both sweet and bitter, which were kept for only the highest noblemen and clerics of the Mesoamerican world. Chocolate is made from the fermented, roasted, and ground beans taken from the pod of the tropical cacao tree, Theobroma cacao, which was native to Central America and Mexico, but is now cultivated all through the tropics. The beans have an intensely flavoured bitter taste. The resultant products are known as "chocolate" or, in some parts of the world, cocoa.

Wednesday, May 16, 2007

Scientific Methods

The scientific method seeks to explain the complexities of nature in a replicable way, and to use these explanations to construct useful predictions. It provides an objective method to find solutions to problems in a number of scientific and technological fields. Often scientists have a predilection for one outcome over another, and scientists are conscientious that it is vital that this preference does not bias their interpretation. A strict following of the scientific method attempts to minimize the pressure of a scientist's bias on the outcome of an experiment. This can be achieved by correct experimental design, and a thorough peer assessment of the experimental results as well as conclusions of a study.

Scientists use models to refer to a explanation or depiction of something, specifically one which can be used to construct predictions that can be tested by experiment or observation. A hypothesis is a disputation that has been neither well supported nor yet ruled out by experiment. A theory, in the context of science, is a logically self-consistent model or framework for recitation the behavior of certain natural phenomena. A theory typically describes the behavior of much broader sets of phenomena than a hypothesis — commonly, a large number of hypotheses may be logically bound together by a single theory. A physical law or law of nature is a scientific generalization based on a adequately large number of empirical observations that it is taken as fully verified.

Sunday, May 13, 2007

Solar System

solar system consists of the Sun and the supplementary celestial objects gravitationally bound to it: the eight planets, their 162 known moons,three at present recognized dwarf planets (including Pluto) and their four known moons, and billions of small bodies. This last category includes asteroids, Kuiper belt objects, comets, meteoroids and interplanetary dust.
In broad terms, the charted regions of the Solar System consist of the Sun, four terrestrial inner planets, an asteroid belt composed of small rocky bodies, four gas giant outer planets, and a second belt, called the Kuiper belt, collected of icy objects. Beyond the Kuiper belt lies the dotted disc, the heliopause, and ultimately the hypothetical Oort cloud.

Tuesday, May 08, 2007

Butter cream

Butter cream or buttercream or mock cream is a type of icing used in cakes, as a coating, and as decoration. In its simplest form, it is made by creaming butter with icing sugar, though other fats can be used, such as margarine or even avocado. Colourings and flavorings are often added, such as cocoa powder or vanilla extract.
A notable use of buttercream is in butterfly cakes, though it is popular as a topping for many other forms of Victoria sponge.

Friday, May 04, 2007

Bonneville Dam

100 Bonneville Lock and Dam consists of a number of dam structures that together whole a span of the Columbia River between the US states of Oregon and Washington at River Mile 146.1. The dam is situated 40 miles east of Portland, Oregon, in what is now the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The main functions of Bonneville Lock and Dam are those of electrical power generation and river navigation. The dam was built and is managed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. Electrical power generated at Bonneville is spread by the Bonneville Power Administration. Bonneville Lock and Dam are named for Army Capt. Benjamin Bonneville, an early explorer endorsed with charting much of the Oregon Trail. The name is marked BAH-nee-vill.

The unusual structures: a lock and powerhouse constructed on the south side of Bradford Island and a spillway on the north side were built by the Army Corps of Engineers during the New Deal—started in 1933 and finished in 1937. Prior to this damming of the river, a set of locks that were opened in 1896 moved ships around Cascades Rapids, situated several miles upstream of Bonneville. Both the cascades and the old lock structure were submerged by Lake Bonneville, the tank that formed behind the dam. The original navigation lock at Bonneville was opened in 1938 and was, at that time, the biggest single-lift lock in the world.

Dimensions and statistics

Aerial view of spillway flanked by powerhouses, Bonneville Lock and Lake Bonneville beyond First Powerhouse – Constructed in 1933-37; 313 m long; 10 generators with an output capacity of 526,700 kW.
Spillway – Constructed 1933-37; 18 gates over a length of 442 m; maintains the reservoir usually 18 m above the river on the downstream side;
Second Powerhouse – Constructed 1974-81; 300.5 m long; 8 generators with a total generating capacity of 558,200 kW.
Bonneville Lock – Constructed in 1993 at a cost of $341 million; 26 m wide, 206 m long; transit time is approx. 30 minutes.
Lake Bonneville – 77 km long reservoir on the Columbia River created by Bonneville Dam; part of the Columbia-Snake Inland Waterway.

Monday, April 30, 2007

Postal Marking

A postage stamp is proof of pre-paying a fee for postal services. Usually a small paper rectangle which is attached to an envelope, signifying that the person sending the letter or package has paid for delivery; it is the most popular option to using a prepaid-postage envelope.


In it he argued that it would be well again for the sender to pay the cost of delivery, rather than the addressee who could refuse the letter if they could not or did not want to pay, as occasionally happened at the time. He also argued for a identical rate of one penny per letter, no matter where its end. Accounting costs for the government would thus be cut; postage would no longer be charged according to how far a letter had traveled, which necessary each letter to have an individual entry in the Royal Mail's accounts. Chalmers' ideas were finally adopted by Parliament in August, 1839 and the General Post Office launched the Penny Post service the next year in 1840 with two prepaid-postage symbolic envelopes or wrappers: one valued at a penny and one valued at two pence.

Tuesday, April 24, 2007

Brown Thrasher

The Brown Thrasher is a common type of thrasher, part of a family of New World birds that includes New World catbirds and mockingbirds.The Brown Thrasher is, as the name suggests, mostly brown or reddish-brown on top of, with a white breast and throat streaked with brown, and two white bars on each wing. It has a long tail, and its beak is also relatively large and somewhat curved. Adults average about 29 cm (11.5 in) in length.
It is difficult to see all this however, as the bird is a retiring type that prefers thickets and heavy brush, often searching for food in dry leaves on the ground. In fact, it is more probable to be heard than seen, not only because of the rattling of leaves, but also because of its call, a sharp lip-smacking type sound. This bird is omnivorous, eating insects, berries, nuts and seeds, as well as earthworms, snails and sometimes lizards.Its breeding variety includes the United States and Canada east of the Rocky Mountains. It is a partial migrant, with northern birds wintering in the southern USA, where it occurs all through the year. There is a single British record of this unlikely transatlantic vagrant.
The female lays 3 to 5 eggs in a twiggy nest lined with grass. The nest is built in a dense shrub or low in a tree. Both parents incubate and feed the young. These birds raise two, rarely three, broods in a year. The male sings a series of short recurring melodious phrases from an open perch to defend his territory and is also very aggressive in defending the nest.
Although this bird is widespread and still common, it has declined in numbers in some areas due to loss of suitable habitat.
The Brown Thrasher is the official state bird of Georgia, and the inspiration for the name of Atlanta's National Hockey League team, the Atlanta Thrashers.

Wednesday, April 18, 2007

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air is a major U.S. airline headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, operating a large domestic and international network that spans North America, South America, Europe, Asia, and the Caribbean.

Delta operates hubs at Atlanta, Cincinnati, New York-JFK, and Salt Lake City. Delta also has great operations in many other cities, including Boston, Columbus, Fort Lauderdale, Los Angeles, New York-LaGuardia, Orlando, and Washington-Reagan. Delta is also the foremost hauler in Florida. Its key worldwide gateways are Atlanta, Cincinnati, and New York-JFK.

In terms of passengers approved, Delta is the second-largest airline in the world. In terms of total operating revenues, Delta is the fourth-largest airline in the world As of September 1, 2005, Delta served 178 domestic cities in 46 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, as well as 71 international cities, including 10 future ones, in 45 countries.

Early history

Delta timetable from 1934
Delta Boeing 747, operated by Pan Am, at London Heathrow Airport in May 1974.The corporation has its roots in Huff Daland Dusters, which was founded in 1924 in Macon, Georgia by more than a few partners with Collett E. Woolman becoming the world's first aerial crop dusting company. Huff Daland moved to Monroe, Louisiana the following year. In 1928, Huff Daland Dusters was purchased by C.E. Woolman and renamed Delta Air military after the Mississippi Delta, where its route joined Dallas, Texas to Jackson, Mississippi, via Shreveport, Louisiana and Monroe. By 1934, Delta Air began mail service from Charleston to Fort Worth, including Atlanta, Augusta and other stops in Georgia.

In 1941, Delta enthused its headquarters from Monroe to Atlanta, Georgia, to center itself along its new way network that joined Chicago and New Orleans to Florida and Ohio which would later become a Delta hub. In the 1950s, Delta began flights from New Orleans to the Caribbean and Venezuela, becoming the number 2 U.S. carrier in the region after Pan Am and Braniff. On May 1, 1953, Delta combined with Chicago and Southern to enlarge routes in Midwest. In 1955 Delta introduced the "hub and spoke system" where flights are running scared to a central point then sent out to other cities. By the early 1960s, Delta's route network extended to the West Coast, and Dallas was emerging as its second hub city.

Tuesday, April 10, 2007

Transistor radio

The transistor radio is a small radio receiver.
RCA demonstrated a prototype transistor radio in 1952. The first commercial transistor radio, the Regency TR-1, was announced on October 18, 1954 by the Regency Division of Industrial Development Engineering Associates of Indianapolis, Indiana and put on sale in November of 1954. It cost $49.95 (the equivalent of $361 in year-2005 dollars) and sold approximately 100,000 units.
The use of transistors in its place of vacuum tubes as the amplifier elements meant that the device was much smaller and necessary far less power to operate than a tubed radio. The characteristic portable radio of the fifties was about the size and weight of a small laptop computer, and contained several heavy batteries: one or more A batteries to heat the tube filaments and a large 45 to 90 volt B battery for plate voltage. By comparison, the "transistor" was about the size and weight of today's cassette-playing Walkman and operated off a single compact 9 V battery. The now-familiar 9 V battery was introduced particularly for powering transistor radios.

Friday, April 06, 2007


The transistor is a solid state semiconductor device which can be used for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and many other functions. It acts as a changeable valve which, based on its input current (BJT) or input voltage (FET), allows a precise amount of current to flow through it from the circuit's voltage supply.In essence, a transistor has three terminals. A current or voltage applied through/across two terminals controls a larger current through the other terminal and the common terminal. In analog circuits, transistors are used in amplifiers. Analog circuits include audio amplifiers, stabilised power supplies and radio frequency amplifiers. In digital circuits, transistors function basically as electrical switches. Digital circuits include logic gates, RAM (random access memory) and microprocessors.Transistor was also the common name in the sixties for a transistor radio, a portable radio that used transistors (rather than vacuum tubes) as its active electronic components. This is still one of the dictionary definitions of transistor.

Monday, April 02, 2007

Traffic psychology

Traffic psychology is a young increasing field in psychology. Whereas traffic psychology is first and foremost related to "the study of the behaviour of road users and the psychological processes underlying that behaviour" as well as to the relation between behaviour and accidents, transportation psychology, sometimes referred to as mobility psychology, has its focus on mobility issues, individual and social factors in the movement of people and goods, and travel demand management (TDM).
There is no single theoretical framework in traffic psychology, but many specific models explaining, e.g., perceptual, attentional, cognitive, social, motivational and emotional determinants of mobility and traffic behaviour. One of the most famous behavioural models divides the various tasks concerned in traffic participation into three hierarchical levels, i.e. the strategic, the tactical and the operational level. The model demonstrates the diversity of decision and control tasks which have to be accomplished when driving a vehicle. However, until now, most of the psychological models have a rather heuristic nature, e.g. risk theories like the risk compensation hypothesis, Fuller's task capability model, and thus are not adequately precise to allow for concrete behavioural prediction and control. This is partly due to the importance of individual differences, a major topic of psychology which in traffic and transportation has not yet been adequately accounted for. On the other hand, social-psychological attitude-behaviour models, such as Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, have been helpful in identifying determinants of mobility decisions.

Thursday, March 29, 2007

Croydon Airport

Croydon Airport is in south London on the borders of the London Boroughs of Croydon and Sutton. It was once the main airport for London, before it was replaced by Northolt Aerodrome, London Heathrow Airport and London Gatwick Airport.
It originated as two adjacent World War I airfields. Beddington Aerodrome, one of a number of small airfields around London which had been formed for protection against the Zeppelin raids in about May 1915, and Waddon Aerodrome of 1918, a test-flight aerodrome adjoining National Aircraft Factory No1.
At the end of that war, the two airfields were joint into London's official airport as the gateway for all international flights to and from the capital. Croydon Aerodrome opened on 29 March 1920.
It stimulated a increase in regular scheduled flights carrying passengers, mail and freight, the first destinations being Paris, Amsterdam and Rotterdam. In 1923 Berlin flights were added. It was the operating base for Imperial Airways - remembered in the road name Imperial Way on the site today.
In the mid 1920s, the airfield was extended, some adjacent roads being permanently closed to allow heavier airliners to land and depart safely. A new complex of buildings was constructed adjoining Purley Way, including the first purpose-designed air terminal in the world, the Aerodrome Hotel and extensive hangars, all opening on 2 May 1928.
The terminal building, the booking hall inside it with its gallery balustraded in the geometrical design typical of the period, and the Aerodrome hotel were all built in the Art Deco style of the 1920s and 1930s. A further item that caught the eye of visitor and traveller alike was the time zone tower in the booking hall with its dials depicting the times in different parts of the world.
The aerodrome was known the world over, its fame being spread by the many aviators and pioneers who touched down at Croydon.

Monday, March 26, 2007

Atomic clock

An atomic clock is a type of clock so as to uses an atomic resonance frequency standard as its counter. Early atomic clocks were masers by means of attached equipment. Today's best atomic frequency standards (or clocks) are based on more advanced physics involving cold atoms and atomic fountains. National standards agencies maintain an accuracy of 10-9 seconds per day, and a precision equal to the frequency of the radio transmitter pumping the maser. The clocks keep up a continuous and stable time scale, International Atomic Time (TAI). For civil time, another time scale is disseminated, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). UTC is derived from TAI, but coordinated with the passing of day and night based on astronomical observations.

Wednesday, March 21, 2007

Flower anatomy

Flowering plants are heterosporangiate (producing two types of reproductive spores) and the pollen (male spores) and ovules (female spores) are created in different organs, but these are jointly in a bisporangiate strobilus that is the typical flower.
A flower is regarded as a customized stem with shortened internodes and bearing, at its nodes, structures that may be very modified leaves. In essence, a flower structure forms on a modified shoot or axis with an apical meristem that does not grow continuously (growth is determinate). The stem is called a pedicel, the end of which is the torus or receptacle. The parts of a flower are set in whorls on the torus. The four main parts or whorls (starting from the base of the flower or lowest node and working upwards) are as follows:
Poppycalyx – the outer whorl of sepals; typically these are green, but are petal-like in some species.
corolla – the whorl of petals, which are usually thin, soft and colored to attract insects that help the process of pollination.
androecium– one or two whorls of stamens, each a filament topped by an anther where pollen is produced. Pollen contains the male gametes.
gynoecium– one or more pistils. The female reproductive organ is the carpel: this contains an ovary with ovules (female gametes). A pistil may consist of a number of carpels merged together, in which case there is only one pistil to each flower, or of a single individual carpel (the flower is then called apocarpous). The sticky tip of the pistil, the stigma, is the receptor of pollen. The supportive stalk, the style becomes the pathway for pollen tubes to grow from pollen grains adhering to the stigma, to the ovules, carrying the reproductive material.

Friday, March 16, 2007

Brown Pelican

The Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis †) is the smallest (42"-54") member of the pelican family.
It lives severely on coasts from Washington and Cape Cod to the mouth of the Amazon River. Some immature birds may stray to inland freshwater lakes. After nesting, North American birds move further north along the coasts in flocks, frequent to warmer waters for winter.
This bird is illustrious from the American White Pelican by its brown body and its habit of diving for fish from the air, as opposite to cooperative fishing from the surface. It dines mostly on herring-like fish. Groups of these birds often travel in single file, flying low over the water's surface.
The nest location varies from a easy scrape on the ground on an island to a bulky stick nest in a low tree. These birds nest in colonies, usually on islands.
Pesticides like DDT and dieldrin threatened its prospect in the southwest United States and California in the early 1970s. Pesticides also threatened the pelican population in Florida in this time period. A study group from the University of Tampa headed up by Dr. Ralph Schreiber conducted research in the Tampa Bay/St Petersburg area and found that DDT caused the pelican eggshells to be overly-thin and incapable of supporting the embryo to maturity. As a result of this research, DDT usage was eliminated in Florida and the rest of the country.
There are four subspecies:
Pelecanus occidentalis californicus (California brown pelican)
Pelecanus occidentalis carolinensis
Pelecanus occidentalis occidentalis Linnaeus,
Pelecanus occidentalis thagus
It is the state bird of Louisiana.

Sunday, March 11, 2007


Manga is the Japanese word for comics and print cartoons. Outside of Japan, it generally refers specifically to comics initially published in Japan. As of 2007, manga represents a multi-billion dollar global market.Manga developed from a mixture of ukiyo-e and foreign styles of drawing, and took its current form shortly after World War II. It comes primarily in black and white, except for the covers and sometimes the first few pages; in some Animanga (Anime printed in Manga style) all the pages are colored.
Popular manga are frequently adapted into anime (Japanese for animation) once a market interest has been established (Manga is sometimes mistakenly called "anime" by those not familiar with the term). Adapted stories are often modified to appeal to a more mainstream market. Although not as general, original anime is sometimes adapted into manga (such as the Gundam franchise, Neon Genesis Evangelion, Cowboy Bebop and Tenchi Muyo).

Tuesday, March 06, 2007

Air pollution

Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e.g. particulate matter), or biological agent that modifies the normal characteristics of the atmosphere. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been known as a threat to human health as well as to the earth's ecosystems.
Worldwide air pollution is in charge for large numbers of deaths and cases of respiratory disease. Enforced air quality standards, like the Clean Air Act in the United States, have reduced the occurrence of some pollutants. While major stationary sources are often identified with air pollution, the greatest source of emissions are in fact mobile sources, principally the automobile. Gases such as carbon dioxide, which contribute to global warming, have newly gained recognition as pollutants.

Thursday, March 01, 2007

Chili fruit

The fruit is eaten cooked or raw for its fiery hot flavour which is concerted along the top of the pod. The stem end of the pod has glands which create the capsaicin, which then flows down through the pod. The white pith, that surrounds the seeds, contains the highest concentrations of capsaicin. Removing the seeds and inner membranes is thus effectual at reducing the heat of a pod.
Chile powder is a spice made of the dried ground chilies, generally of the Mexican chile ancho variety, but with small amounts of cayenne added for heat, while chili powder is composed of dried ground chili peppers, cumin, garlic and oregano. The bottled hot sauce Tabasco sauce is made from Tabasco chilies, similar to cayenne, which may also be fermented. Chipotles are dry, smoked red (ripe) jalapeños.
Indian cooking has multiple uses for chilies, from snacks like bajji where the chilies are dipped in batter and fried to the infamously hot vindaloo. Chilies are also dried and roasted and salted for later use as a side dish for rice varieties like vadam (a kind of pappad). In Turkish or Ottoman cuisine, chilies are commonly used where it is known as Kırmızı Biber (Red Pepper) or Acı Biber (Hot Pepper). Sambal is dropping sauce made from chili peppers with many other ingredients such as garlic, onion, shallots, salt, vinegar and sugar, which is very popular in Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

Sunday, February 25, 2007


A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees at all levels bachelor, master, and doctorate in a variety of subjects. A university provides both tertiary and quaternary education. The word university is resultant from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning community of masters and scholars.
Because of the above definition, there is some controversy concerning which is the world's oldest university.
If we consider a university as a corporation of students, then Plato's Academy is the first historically known university. The original Latin word "universitas", first used at the time of renewed interest in Classical Greek and Roman tradition, tried to reflect this feature of Academy. If we consider university simply as a higher education institution, then it could be Shangyang, which was founded before the 21st c. BC in China, if it is not a just myth. In the western world, the choice is between Takshashila, Nalanda, Ratnagiri University and Al-Azhar University.

Tuesday, February 20, 2007


A grape is the fruit that grows on the vines of the family Vitaceae. Grapes are cultivated in clusters of 6 to 300, and can be black, blue, golden, green, purple, red, pink, brown, peach or white. They can be eaten or used for manufacturing jam, grape juice, jelly, wine and grape seed oil. Farming of grapevines occurs in vineyards, and is called viticulture. One who studies and practices growing grapes for wine is called a viticulturalist.
Raisins are the dried fruit of the grapevine, and the name actually comes from the French word for "grape". Wild grapevines are often considered a nuisance weed, as they cover other plants with their usually rather violent growth.
The leaves of the grape vine itself are considered edible and are used in the making of dolmades.

Wednesday, February 14, 2007


Amarnath is one of the blessed shrines of the Hindus. Every year thousands of Hindu pilgrims from all over the world visit this shrine.Tourism forms an vital part of the Kashmiri economy. Often dubbed "Paradise on Earth," Kashmir's mountainous landscape has paying attention tourists for centuries.The Vaishno Devi cave shrine is nestled in the Trikuta mountain at a height of 5,200 feet above the sea level in Indian Kashmir. Vaishno Devi is the most main holy
shrine of Shaktism denomination of Hinduism. In 2004, more than 6 million Hindu piligrims visited Vaishno Devi, making it one of the most visited spiritual sites in the world.There are many mosques serving the largely Muslim population, such as the Hazratbal Mosque, located on the banks of the Dal Lake. The sacred hair of the Holy Prophet Muhammad is said to have been brought to this part of the world by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and this relic lies in the Hazratbal shrine. The shrine was built in white marble in contemporary times and bears a close resemblance to the holy shrine of Medina in Saudi Arabia where the prophet rests. Nature has lavishly endowed Kashmir with certain distinctive favours which hardly find a parallel in any alpine land of the world. A spell on a houseboat on Dal Lake has always been one of the real treats, and Kashmir also offers some pleasant trekking opportunities and incomparable scenery.
Srinagar City is centred around Dal Lake and this huge lake attracts millions of tourists, both domestic and foreign. A drive along the Boulevard (the road along the banks of the lake) has been a favourite with locals and tourists alike mainly because of the lovely beauty of the boulevard and the shikaras. Srinagar City also has a lot of gardens along the banks of Dal Lake. Nishat, Cheshma-i-Shahi, Shalimar and Harven gardens all were built by the Moghuls and are extremely breathtaking in view all through the year. These gardens have the famed Chinar trees. These majestic trees be similar to Maples but are much bigger and more attractive.Long ago, Dal Lake was renowned for its vastness, which stretched for more than 50 square miles. Unfortunately, today, due partly to unabated tourist influx that largely has been unorganized for some years now, this lake has shrunk to less than 10 square kilometres largely due to the plenty of residential and tourist sectors along its banks. Government mismanagement and apathy have also been causal factors to the shrinking of the lake. Pahalgam is at the junction of the streams flowing from Sheshnag Lake and the Lidder River. Pahalgam (2,130 meters) once was a humble shepherd's village with astounding views. Today, Pahalgam
is Kashmir's prime tourist resort. It is cool even during the height of summer when the maximum temperature does not exceed 25 degrees C.

Sunday, February 11, 2007

Creation of Money

Although types of money are easily known and distinguished, the actual nature of money and the manner in which it is created is less easily understood. The fact that commodities such as gold, silver, furs or tobacco leaves have value does not make any of them money. It becomes money only when it is generally accepted as a symbol representing a certain value of goods and services and readily accepted in exchange for other goods and services of commensurate perceived value. Trust in its accuracy and universal acceptance and confidence in the availability of goods and services for redemption are essential criteria. The creation of money is also a subject of considerable confusion and superstition. The creation of commodity money was made possible by the discovery or production of more of the particular commodity, such as gold or barley. As commerce expanded, trade became the primary means for making of new money. Traders supplied goods to their buyers on credit through bills of exchange which the buyer endorsed and promised to pay within a given period of time. Bills endorsed by credit-worthy buyers or their guarantors then become a form of currency that could be used by the note holder to make additional purchases. At a later date banks became the principle source of new money. Banks take in deposits and issue loans to borrowers either by paying out some of the currency receipted on deposit or simply by creating a new deposit in the borrowers account without receiving currency to back it up. By this means banks create many times more money than the amount they receive or hold on deposit. Central banks in turn further multiply the amount of currency and require deposits by printing additional currency and using it to purchase government bonds or by lending it to commercial banks by creating fresh deposits at the central bank for the bank just as the bank does for its own borrowers.

Monday, February 05, 2007

Essentials of healthy life-cleanliness a brief review
Health is wealth so preserve it. Life is short so use it in the right way. Cleanliness merely fits with the apt meaning of being free from dirt, dust, germs and bad smells. A recent shift has now taken place to recognise that 'germs' may play a major role in our immune systems. So experts say washing hands frequently, specially when in an environment of many people with infections and diseases. Washing is one of the best way to achieve cleanliness.Have a brief overlook on the following issue to be aware of how to keep one self clean.
A step way process regarding cleanliness of hands is given below:
• Use warm water
• But avoid scorching your hands.
• Use anti-bacterial soap or hand wash.
• Wash between fingers and use paper towels to wipe off.
Washing of hands has to be followed
• Before eating • After eating
• After using the toilet
• After playing outdoor games
• After attending to a sick person
• After blowing nose, coughing, or sneezing; and after handling pets.
The proverb "Cleanliness is next to Godliness," a common phrase that describes humanity's high opinion of being clean. Purposes of cleanliness include health, beauty and to avoid the spreading of germs .If your hands have any kind of skin cut or infection, wash hands with an anti bacterial soap. Thoroughly wash with hot, soapy water all surfaces that come in contact with raw meat, poultry, fish, and eggs before moving on to the next step in food preparation. Consider using paper towels to clean kitchen surfaces.Keep pets, household cleaners, and other chemicals away from food and surfaces used for food. Along with removing any old food or dirty water, it's a very good practice to clean the bowls or containers that the food and water are in, ever Hygienic practices—such as frequent hand washing or the use of boiled (and thus sterilized) water have a profound impact on reducing the spread of disease. This is because they kill or remove disease-causing microbes (germs) in the immediate surroundings. For instance, washing one's hands after using the toilet and before handling food reduces the chance of spreading E. coli bacteria and Hepatitis A, both of which are spread from fecal contamination of food.-healthyPersonal cleanliness:sadblack1 common
• Daily washing of the body and hair.
• More frequent washing of hands and face.
• Oral hygiene—Daily brushing teeth.
• Cleaning of the clothes and living area.
• Use of bandaging and dressing of wounds.
• Not touching animals before eating.
• avoidance of unhygienic people.
• Holding a tissue in your hand when coughing or sneezeing.
• Suppression of habits such as spitting or nose-picking.
• Washing hands before eating.
• Not licking fingers before picking up sheets of paper.
• Cut finger nails and toe nails.

Saturday, January 27, 2007

Journalism Basics
Journalism is a concrete, professionally oriented major that involves gathering, interpreting, distilling, and other reporting information to the general audiences through a variety of media means. Journalism majors learn about every possible kind of Journalism (including magazine, newspaper, online journalism, photojournalism, broadcast journalism, and public relations).
That's not all, though. In addition to dedicated training in writing, editing, and reporting, Journalism wants a working knowledge of history, culture, and current events. You'll more than likely be required to take up a broad range of courses that runs the range from statistics to the hard sciences to economics to history. There would also be a lot of haughty talk about professional ethics and civic responsibility too - and you'll be tested on it. To top it all off, you'll perhaps work on the university newspaper or radio station, or possibly complete an internship with a magazine or a mass media conglomerate.