Sunday, February 25, 2007


A university is an institution of higher education and research, which grants academic degrees at all levels bachelor, master, and doctorate in a variety of subjects. A university provides both tertiary and quaternary education. The word university is resultant from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, roughly meaning community of masters and scholars.
Because of the above definition, there is some controversy concerning which is the world's oldest university.
If we consider a university as a corporation of students, then Plato's Academy is the first historically known university. The original Latin word "universitas", first used at the time of renewed interest in Classical Greek and Roman tradition, tried to reflect this feature of Academy. If we consider university simply as a higher education institution, then it could be Shangyang, which was founded before the 21st c. BC in China, if it is not a just myth. In the western world, the choice is between Takshashila, Nalanda, Ratnagiri University and Al-Azhar University.

Tuesday, February 20, 2007


A grape is the fruit that grows on the vines of the family Vitaceae. Grapes are cultivated in clusters of 6 to 300, and can be black, blue, golden, green, purple, red, pink, brown, peach or white. They can be eaten or used for manufacturing jam, grape juice, jelly, wine and grape seed oil. Farming of grapevines occurs in vineyards, and is called viticulture. One who studies and practices growing grapes for wine is called a viticulturalist.
Raisins are the dried fruit of the grapevine, and the name actually comes from the French word for "grape". Wild grapevines are often considered a nuisance weed, as they cover other plants with their usually rather violent growth.
The leaves of the grape vine itself are considered edible and are used in the making of dolmades.

Wednesday, February 14, 2007


Amarnath is one of the blessed shrines of the Hindus. Every year thousands of Hindu pilgrims from all over the world visit this shrine.Tourism forms an vital part of the Kashmiri economy. Often dubbed "Paradise on Earth," Kashmir's mountainous landscape has paying attention tourists for centuries.The Vaishno Devi cave shrine is nestled in the Trikuta mountain at a height of 5,200 feet above the sea level in Indian Kashmir. Vaishno Devi is the most main holy
shrine of Shaktism denomination of Hinduism. In 2004, more than 6 million Hindu piligrims visited Vaishno Devi, making it one of the most visited spiritual sites in the world.There are many mosques serving the largely Muslim population, such as the Hazratbal Mosque, located on the banks of the Dal Lake. The sacred hair of the Holy Prophet Muhammad is said to have been brought to this part of the world by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb and this relic lies in the Hazratbal shrine. The shrine was built in white marble in contemporary times and bears a close resemblance to the holy shrine of Medina in Saudi Arabia where the prophet rests. Nature has lavishly endowed Kashmir with certain distinctive favours which hardly find a parallel in any alpine land of the world. A spell on a houseboat on Dal Lake has always been one of the real treats, and Kashmir also offers some pleasant trekking opportunities and incomparable scenery.
Srinagar City is centred around Dal Lake and this huge lake attracts millions of tourists, both domestic and foreign. A drive along the Boulevard (the road along the banks of the lake) has been a favourite with locals and tourists alike mainly because of the lovely beauty of the boulevard and the shikaras. Srinagar City also has a lot of gardens along the banks of Dal Lake. Nishat, Cheshma-i-Shahi, Shalimar and Harven gardens all were built by the Moghuls and are extremely breathtaking in view all through the year. These gardens have the famed Chinar trees. These majestic trees be similar to Maples but are much bigger and more attractive.Long ago, Dal Lake was renowned for its vastness, which stretched for more than 50 square miles. Unfortunately, today, due partly to unabated tourist influx that largely has been unorganized for some years now, this lake has shrunk to less than 10 square kilometres largely due to the plenty of residential and tourist sectors along its banks. Government mismanagement and apathy have also been causal factors to the shrinking of the lake. Pahalgam is at the junction of the streams flowing from Sheshnag Lake and the Lidder River. Pahalgam (2,130 meters) once was a humble shepherd's village with astounding views. Today, Pahalgam
is Kashmir's prime tourist resort. It is cool even during the height of summer when the maximum temperature does not exceed 25 degrees C.

Sunday, February 11, 2007

Creation of Money

Although types of money are easily known and distinguished, the actual nature of money and the manner in which it is created is less easily understood. The fact that commodities such as gold, silver, furs or tobacco leaves have value does not make any of them money. It becomes money only when it is generally accepted as a symbol representing a certain value of goods and services and readily accepted in exchange for other goods and services of commensurate perceived value. Trust in its accuracy and universal acceptance and confidence in the availability of goods and services for redemption are essential criteria. The creation of money is also a subject of considerable confusion and superstition. The creation of commodity money was made possible by the discovery or production of more of the particular commodity, such as gold or barley. As commerce expanded, trade became the primary means for making of new money. Traders supplied goods to their buyers on credit through bills of exchange which the buyer endorsed and promised to pay within a given period of time. Bills endorsed by credit-worthy buyers or their guarantors then become a form of currency that could be used by the note holder to make additional purchases. At a later date banks became the principle source of new money. Banks take in deposits and issue loans to borrowers either by paying out some of the currency receipted on deposit or simply by creating a new deposit in the borrowers account without receiving currency to back it up. By this means banks create many times more money than the amount they receive or hold on deposit. Central banks in turn further multiply the amount of currency and require deposits by printing additional currency and using it to purchase government bonds or by lending it to commercial banks by creating fresh deposits at the central bank for the bank just as the bank does for its own borrowers.

Monday, February 05, 2007

Essentials of healthy life-cleanliness a brief review
Health is wealth so preserve it. Life is short so use it in the right way. Cleanliness merely fits with the apt meaning of being free from dirt, dust, germs and bad smells. A recent shift has now taken place to recognise that 'germs' may play a major role in our immune systems. So experts say washing hands frequently, specially when in an environment of many people with infections and diseases. Washing is one of the best way to achieve cleanliness.Have a brief overlook on the following issue to be aware of how to keep one self clean.
A step way process regarding cleanliness of hands is given below:
• Use warm water
• But avoid scorching your hands.
• Use anti-bacterial soap or hand wash.
• Wash between fingers and use paper towels to wipe off.
Washing of hands has to be followed
• Before eating • After eating
• After using the toilet
• After playing outdoor games
• After attending to a sick person
• After blowing nose, coughing, or sneezing; and after handling pets.
The proverb "Cleanliness is next to Godliness," a common phrase that describes humanity's high opinion of being clean. Purposes of cleanliness include health, beauty and to avoid the spreading of germs .If your hands have any kind of skin cut or infection, wash hands with an anti bacterial soap. Thoroughly wash with hot, soapy water all surfaces that come in contact with raw meat, poultry, fish, and eggs before moving on to the next step in food preparation. Consider using paper towels to clean kitchen surfaces.Keep pets, household cleaners, and other chemicals away from food and surfaces used for food. Along with removing any old food or dirty water, it's a very good practice to clean the bowls or containers that the food and water are in, ever Hygienic practices—such as frequent hand washing or the use of boiled (and thus sterilized) water have a profound impact on reducing the spread of disease. This is because they kill or remove disease-causing microbes (germs) in the immediate surroundings. For instance, washing one's hands after using the toilet and before handling food reduces the chance of spreading E. coli bacteria and Hepatitis A, both of which are spread from fecal contamination of food.-healthyPersonal cleanliness:sadblack1 common
• Daily washing of the body and hair.
• More frequent washing of hands and face.
• Oral hygiene—Daily brushing teeth.
• Cleaning of the clothes and living area.
• Use of bandaging and dressing of wounds.
• Not touching animals before eating.
• avoidance of unhygienic people.
• Holding a tissue in your hand when coughing or sneezeing.
• Suppression of habits such as spitting or nose-picking.
• Washing hands before eating.
• Not licking fingers before picking up sheets of paper.
• Cut finger nails and toe nails.